February 2017 had two noteworthy announcements pertaining to lignin-based materials: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland announced the development of a reactive lignin product to replace phenol in phenol formaldehyde adhesives and the Institute of Textile Chemistry and Chemical Fibers (ITCF) Denkendorf announced its participation in the “LIBRE Project” (Lignin Based Carbon Fibers for Composites). However, lignin’s successful use in materials has faced challenges including processing, derivatization, lignin’s unpleasant odor and dark colors, and questionable cost and performance benefits ([see the report “Assessing Lignin-based Material Innovations“] client registration required). As such, we have given Lux Takes based on the probability of these announcements for overcoming these issues: Continue reading
Stanford University researchers have published a new study in Energy & Environmental Sciences that applies artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to accelerate the development of advanced batteries. Specifically, they looked to improve solid-state battery electrolytes, which are a very promising class of materials that could potentially improve the safety, performance, and cost of energy storage, affecting important applications like plug-in vehicles. While this initial Stanford study did not physically result in better batteries yet, it does present an early and important case study in how AI will impact how science will be done in the future, and how it can accelerate progress on open problems like next-generation battery development. Continue reading
SolidWorks, a supplier of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided engineering (CAE), and other manufacturing and design software, recently announced that in 2017, it will integrate currently separate software suites to provide a “fully digitized design to manufacturing ecosystem.” Currently, part designers using CAD software need to design a part capable of performing its function while making sure the part is manufacturable given manufacturing equipment availability, configurations, and limitations. The software can currently perform certain sanity checks based on established Design for Manufacturing (DFM) rules, but Dassault Systemes (SolidWorks’ parent company) CEO Gian Paolo Bassi reported that in 2017 the company plans to go much further in allowing the software to make and optimize such decisions. In particular, SolidWorks plans for its software to keep track of what kinds of manufacturing equipment a given user has available, along with the capabilities and limits of that equipment, and even parts that are available off-the-shelf commercially, in order to determine whether a given design can be reliably made in a given manufacturing environment. The company plans to let the designer input the performance parameters for the part, which will allow the software to modify designs to make them manufacturable. Once a design is finalized, the same software will be able to configure equipment to manufacture the part. The goal is to make the design and manufacturing process as seamless as possible by identifying and fixing potential problems earlier in the design process, and to notice issues human engineers miss. Continue reading
Lux recently spoke to Trana Discovery (client registration required) CEO Steve Peterson about the company’s research partnership with the Crop Science Division of Bayer. The partnership was announced in February, with the stated intention of discovering novel fungicides for agricultural pathogens. Trana will use its platform to screen for fungicide candidates, and pass those candidates to Bayer for testing in fungi. Trana’s approach is to use information about an organism’s gene expression machinery to uniquely and specifically target pathogens including viruses, fungi, and bacteria. Its platform is species-agnostic, though the company’s initial development work was in pursuit of treatments for HIV, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) in humans. The partnership leverages Trana’s screening platform to generate candidate fungicide chemistries with more agility than Bayer could do on its own. Continue reading
What They Said
With the increasing availability and competition between voice-controlled smart home assistants ([see the October 18, 2016 LRSJ] client registration required), Lux recently interviewed Dawn Brun, Senior Manager of Public Relations from Amazon, about its Alexa platform and its future direction. Dawn said that Alexa, like many other voice-based assistants, relies on four key components to drive its conversational interface – Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Natural Language Understanding (NLU), Dialogue Management, and Text to Speech (TTS):
- The first step to answering correctly is speech recognition – hearing correctly. ASR is how we “hear” the user’s speech and convert it to text that we can then process. This is the challenge we had to overcome for Amazon Echo and Alexa – how do you get the machine to understand you from a distance, (i.e. in the far-field environment)?
- Second, we need to make sure we understand the user correctly. NLU helps us parse the user’s request into their true intent. This enables us to find the meaning behind the speech. NLU is a particularly interesting problem, as we want to clearly understand what you are saying. A human-being is very good at disambiguating multiple responses, but with a voice interface you want to try to make the one, right choice from the very beginning for them.
- Third, we need to decide how to respond to the user and take an action to address the request. We call this dialogue management. There’s also a personalization element here. We need to give the user the right response based on past behavior and preferences. So when a user asks to skip a song, we have to quickly deliver a new song that they will like.
- Finally, TTS – we convert text back to speech to respond to the customer’s request. And of course, the TTS needs to be very natural.
When asked about the initial vision for Alexa’s implementation and its vision going forward, Dawn said, “We wanted to create a computer in the cloud that’s controlled entirely by your voice – you could ask it things, ask it to do things for you, find things for you, and it’s easy to converse with in a natural way. We’re always inventing and looking at ways to make customers’ lives easier. We believe voice is the most natural user interface and can really improve the way people interact with technology.”
Asking how Alexa compared to other voice-based assistants, such as Google Now, Microsoft’s Cortana, Apple’s Siri, or Facebook M, Dawn said, “Alexa is different than a voice assistant on a phone or tablet, which is designed to accompany a screen. Alexa was designed with the assumption that the user is not looking at a screen; therefore, the interactions become very different than with other voice assistants. Alexa isn’t a search engine giving you a list of choices on a screen; she’s making a decision on the best choice and delivering that back to the customer. We also leverage AWS, which is a huge advantage – things like huge processing power, Lambda, IoT.”
With a range of fitness devices capable of being diagnostic tools ([see the July 15, 2016 LRWEJ] client registration required), many developers are now turning to wearables to monitor and alleviate stress. This includes wearables that contain one or more of the following sensors: optical/ECG heart rate sensors, EEG sensors, temperature sensors, and impedance/galvanic skin response sensors.
It was back in June of 2016 when Forbes had revised its valuation of Theranos from $4.5 billion to $0 following a series of investigations and allegations that the company’s blood tests were inaccurate. And yet, earlier this month Theranos made headlines again when The The Wall Street Journal published more information on violations of policies and procedures, which it topped off with commentary that the company is now “on life support“. Specifically, The Wall Street Journal had revealed that Theranos employees improperly operated blood testing machines and that the company did not ensure that all patients who may have received potentially inaccurate blood test results were notified. Although Theranos had shifted its focus and is now developing the miniLab– a tabletop laboratory which it will sell to health care providers– the original vision of running hundreds of tests using just a finger prick remains appealing. The question then becomes ‘what are the technology gaps that prevented Theranos’s original promise from becoming a reality?’ To better understand this gap we outline the state of innovation of blood diagnostics today: Continue reading
Lux recently updated its Automotive Battery Tracker (client registration required) product to include vehicle sales through 2016 and the data revealed impressive, albeit expected, results – another record-setting year for plug-in vehicles and Li-ion batteries. Passenger plug-in vehicle sales were up 40% globally in 2016 compared to 2015, as sales jumped from 523,000 to 711,000. More notable growth came from overall battery demand, which grew by 72% in 2016 compared to 2015, as demand reached 21.2 GWh globally. Most of this growth came from the strong growth of battery electric vehicles in China, which is now the world’s largest passenger plug-in vehicle market with 49% market share. Continue reading
There is tremendous hype around blockchain, as venture firms throw billions at startups and developers begin porting the concept outside of the financial services industry. Beyond the hype, there is immense confusion around the appropriate use cases and the emerging participant ecosystem. Enterprises are uncertain about how blockchain will impact their businesses and they are even more uncertain about how to capitalize on the opportunity. In this webinar, we framed the evolving value chain, uncovered real world examples of industrial enterprise deployments, and explored the future of blockchain in industrial use cases beyond finance. Continue reading
Lux Research recently spoke with Mike Festa, Director of Wayfair’s Next at Wayfair, about how the online retailer is innovating on its customers’ online shopping experiences. Wayfair has over 7 million furniture and home décor products available through its website, and started the Wayfair Next R&D lab to bring part of the brick-and-mortar shopping experience to online shoppers through visualization and ease of interaction (client registration required). The lab was created to digitize Wayfair’s extensive product catalog using 3D scanning to create augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) customer experiences. Creating this experience would require 3D scanning hardware, associated software and expertise, as well as developers to create the customer-facing AR and VR applications for desktop and mobile platforms. To redefine the online shopping experience and let people visualize products in their own homes, Wayfair needed to overcome the sizeable engineering hurdles associated with creating 3D models of its millions of products. Continue reading